male infertility

Infertility affects millions of couples worldwide, and while it is often perceived as a female issue, male infertility plays a significant role in conception difficulties. Male infertility can arise from various causes, ranging from lifestyle factors to medical conditions. Understanding these common causes is crucial in addressing and managing male infertility.

Abnormal Sperm Production or Function:

One of the leading causes of male infertility is problems with sperm production or function. These abnormalities can manifest in several ways, including:

  • Low sperm count: A low sperm count reduces the chances of fertilization, making it harder to achieve pregnancy.
  • Poor sperm motility: If the sperm have impaired movement, they may struggle to reach and penetrate the egg.
  • Abnormal sperm morphology: When sperm have irregular shape or structure, it can hinder successful fertilization.

Hormonal Imbalances:

Hormonal imbalances can significantly impact male fertility. Hormones such as testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) play crucial roles in sperm production. Imbalances in these hormones can disrupt the reproductive process.


Varicocele refers to the enlargement of veins within the scrotum, which can raise testicular temperature and impair sperm production. It is one of the most common causes of male infertility, affecting approximately 15% of all men and 40% of infertile men. Surgical correction of varicocele can improve sperm count and motility, increasing the chances of conception.

Genetic Abnormalities:

Genetic factors can contribute to male infertility. Conditions like Klinefelter syndrome, Y-chromosome deletions, and cystic fibrosis gene mutations can affect sperm production or function. Genetic testing can help identify such abnormalities and guide appropriate treatment options.

Lifestyle and Environmental Factors:

Several lifestyle and environmental factors can negatively impact male fertility:

  • Smoking: Tobacco use can harm sperm production and impair sperm quality.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption: Heavy drinking can reduce testosterone levels and affect sperm production.
  • Drug use: Illicit drug use, such as marijuana and anabolic steroids, can lower sperm count and quality.
  • Prolonged heat exposure: Frequent use of hot tubs, saunas, or tight clothing around the groin area can raise testicular temperature and harm sperm production.
  • Occupational hazards: Exposure to chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and radiation can be detrimental to male fertility.

Male infertility is a complex issue with various underlying causes. Understanding the common factors contributing to male infertility is essential for couples struggling to conceive. If you suspect male infertility, seeking professional medical advice and undergoing fertility testing can help identify the root cause. With advancements in medical technology, many causes of male infertility can be addressed or managed, offering hope to couples longing to start a family. In the event that a couple cannot conceive on their own, your doctor may suggest that you and your partner consider either adoption or surrogacy and may even refer you to an agency such as Shared Conception. We are here to assist you.